老话知多少,靠谱有几条?

“不能把口香糖咽下去!否则会在肚里呆7年。”“不能湿着头发跑出去!”“刚吃完饭不许游泳!”这些都是我们耳熟能详的健康古训。这些话真的对吗?靠谱程度究竟有多少?不妨重新审视一番。

相信在大部分人成长的岁月中,爸爸妈妈爷爷奶奶外公外婆……都没少唠叨那些关于营养、关于土方验方等等的老话谚语。我们也大多怀着敬畏和无奈的心情,遵循着这些老话的教导。可是,随着科学的发展,对于我们的身体,我们每天都在知道得更多,更准确,也就更有理由怀疑:那些老话真的都是对的吗?本文就是要看看那些在美国家庭流传了很多年的健康老观念(其中很多在中国也一样普遍),也有多少需要与时俱进一下了?

面包外皮有营养,切了实在不值当?

 

真相在此: 2002年,德国的一些研究人员确实发现在面包烘焙过程中能产生一种具有防癌效果的抗氧化物质,这种物质在面包外皮中比在面包心里丰富8倍。话虽如此,纽约的营养学家克里•格拉斯曼却指出:比起切不切外皮来,更重要的是要吃全麦面包,因为它所含的各种营养成分(例如纤维素)都更丰富。一定要确保面包原料表上写的是“100%全麦面粉”,因为那些仅仅标着原料为“小麦”的,往往是用精制白面粉和全麦面粉混合着烘焙而成,含的纤维素就少了。

湿着头发跑,保准得感冒?

 

真相在此: “你会觉得冷,但从健康角度来说,你没事。”这话是加州圣克莱门蒂的认证儿科医师吉姆•希尔斯说的。他引述了在英国一家感冒研究中心进行的一项研究:一群志愿者们通过鼻腔接种了感冒病毒,他们中的一半呆在一间温暖的房间里,另一半则洗了个澡,然后湿哒哒地在门厅里站上半个小时才穿上衣服,但仍然穿着湿袜子又待了几个小时。结果这群湿乎乎的志愿者得感冒的比例并不比干的那组更高。希尔斯总结说:“感觉寒冷并不会影响你的免疫系统。”

一朝斗鸡眼,终身双目歪?

 

真相在此: “自己模仿着玩的斗鸡眼是无害的。”辛辛那提大学医学院的眼科学副教授W•沃克•默特里说。但是如果你发现你家小孩经常斗鸡眼,而且并不是在模仿某个卡通角色时,就要注意了,他可能有别的视觉问题。

着凉得吃,发烧得饿?

 

真相在此: 甭管着凉发烧,该吃吃该喝喝,最好多喝点。希尔斯医生说,注意补水是最重要的,因为生病时你会流失很多体液。不过,他认为没必要喝诸如佳得乐这种专门添加了电解质的特殊饮料,除非你因为呕吐或者腹泻,已经严重脱水了。

咽下口香糖,肚里待七年?

 

真相在此: 小小的你咽下去的大大口香糖真的不会一直陪你到高中毕业哦。费城儿童医院的资深儿科医师大卫•波拉克说:“就像孩子们咽下去的大部分异物一样,口香糖会被体液带着穿过肠道,在几天之内排出体外。”虽说口香糖在消化系统内很难被分解,但它也不太可能引起肚子痛。

一天一苹果,不用看医生?

 

真相在此: 一天半捧蓝莓,能够更有效地保持健康。蓝莓堪称营养圣物,富含抗氧化物和纤维素,而且更容易混在麦片和酸奶里吃。尽管如此,摄入种类丰富的水果和蔬菜对于预防多种慢性病(比如心脏病、高血压、糖尿病等)才是最重要的。(想知道你孩子需要吃多少蔬菜水果?请登录 fruitsandveggiesmatter 网址,输入他/她的年龄、性别和运动量进行查询。)

一腔热血似火炉,头上散去七成五?

 

真相在此: “这句谚语大概是根据婴儿的头部尺寸得出来的,他们的头占身体的比例可比成人大多了。”波拉克医生说。这就是为什么在寒冷的天气里一定要注意把宝宝的头包裹起来。(这也解释了医院里随处可见新生儿小帽子的现象。)但是,对成人而言,这个比例大概只占到一成。而且,请记住:热量能从任何裸露的部位散失,不管是脚、手臂还是双手,所以在戴上帽子的同时,手套也一样不能忘啦。

打嗝老不停,一吓无踪影?

 

真相在此: 波拉克医生说,绝大部分家传土方像屏住呼吸啊头朝下喝水啊都未被医学上证明有效。不过,有个1971年就发表在《新英格兰医学杂志》上的方子,你不妨一试:咽下一茶匙白砂糖。根据此项研究,这种方法让20个饱受困扰的病人中的19个停止了打嗝。多么甜美的办法!

吃鱼长脑子?

 

真相在此: 对于三四岁以前的孩子来说,这话太对了。鱼类,尤其是像三文鱼(又名鲑鱼、大马哈鱼)这种油脂含量较高的鱼类,富含Ω-3型脂肪酸,其中包括DHA(二十二碳六烯酸)。贝弗利山的儿科医师斯哥特•W•科恩说:“在生命的头两年里,DHA对于脑的发育、认知的形成、视觉的增强是特别有益的。”一项2008年发表在《临床儿科学》上的研究也显示,每天补充DHA的4岁儿童掌握了更大的词汇量和更好的理解能力。对于不爱吃鱼的宝宝有啥别的Ω-3型脂肪酸来源可选呢?不妨试试鳄梨、核桃和菜籽油。

饭后一小时,方可下泳池?

真相在此: “进食后,血液会更多地流向消化系统而不是肌肉,”科恩医生说,“因此传统上认为,如果饭后马上剧烈运动,会因为缺血而导致抽搐,继而溺水。”但这并非事实。希尔斯医生也表示同意:“如果你游得太猛,可能会觉得能量不够,但是踩踩水,耍一耍,没啥大碍。”

多种维生素,孩子天天补?

 

真相在此: 完全依靠母乳喂养的孩子在一岁前要注意补充维生素D。自那以后,继续服用维生素片也是无害的,但很多专家都认为,即使你家孩子正好处于挑食阶段,也不必偷偷往他爱吃的果酱里混“黄金搭档”什么的。“即使最挑三拣四的小朋友也能正常长大,”科恩医生说,“你家孩子终究会吸收他们所需要的营养,甚至仿佛晒晒太阳吹吹风都能长。”

热奶一杯,助君入睡?

 

真相在此: 牛奶中确实含有少量有助睡眠的色氨酸(火鸡中也有哦),“ 但是要想达到催眠效果,你得喝上几加仑才行。(1加仑接近3.8升)”亚利桑那州斯科茨代尔市专攻睡眠不调的临床心理学家迈克尔•布列乌斯说,“真正有效的办法是建立一套按部就班的行为过程让孩子安静下来。”如果一杯热牛奶也是这个行为过程中的一部分,它就能起到一种安慰剂的作用,即使没有科学上的基础又有什么关系?

其实吧,译者觉得这文章里的很多论点也不完全靠谱呢,比如“湿身”是否容易感冒那项研究,只说明在接种了感冒病毒的前提下湿着并不比干着更容易感冒,却没有比较两种状态下感染到病毒的可能性是否相同。但至少作者让我们明白,传统观念是可以被挑战、被修正的,这篇文章提出的新观念,又何尝不是可以商榷的呢?

 

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